Parth Agarwal
RA's Big Journal of Dev Voyage


RA's Big Journal of Dev Voyage


namespace ra :: BlockChain as STL, Data Structure and Iterators

Parth Agarwal's photo
Parth Agarwal
·Feb 22, 2022·

6 min read

Table of contents


To create an iterable blockchain, which could work with an extendable transaction class. Here the link GitHub repo!

Blockchain in Brief:

  • Blockchain is fundamentally a ledger maintaining records of transaction, This ledger is publicly distributed.
  • Blockchain is a sort of linked-list of Blocks, A Block is a data-structure, that contains a set of transactions.
  • Whenever a transaction happens, transferring party adds a reward for the "Miner".
  • A "Miner" picks the set of transactions to be added in block till block-weight-limit (max allowed size of the block) is reached, then "Miner" does some heavy computation as proof of work and then sends the mined block in the world to add in each individual ledger.
  • These Transactions need not be monetary but could be anything that you want to make immutable.

Scope of this Project:

  • Will not be doing any server-side operations.
  • Will create a data-structure complete with custom error and iterators.
  • Miners reward will be sent out by the admin.
  • No block-weight-limit.
  • Our Own Custom Proof of Work.
  • Extendable/Inheritable Transaction Class

Plan of Attack:

  • We are going to use RSA for our encryption needs.
  • Extendable base_transaction class.
  • Create block class with Transaction and HashFunction templates.
  • Create a blockchain class with the same templates and custom iterators to make it iterable.


Lets Setup the extra files!

RSA: Library will be used for signing and verification of transactions.

Create a includes folder and add files from Github

not_implemented_exception: The exception that is thrown when a requested method or operation is not implemented.
class not_implemented_exception : public logic_error
        string function = __builtin_FUNCTION()
    ) : logic_error("`" + function + "` not implemented!"){};


Here are the required things:

  • Parametric Constructor with from_addr, to_addr, transfer_amount
  • Hash Generator function (generate_hash_input)
  • Override string Operator (for string type casting)
  • Override << Operator (for cout)
  • Override < Operator (for comparison)
  • Function to get balance based on address (get_balance(addr))
  • Function to sign transaction (sign_transaction(key_pair))
  • Function to validate transaction (is_transaction_valid(verifying_func))

Every Function logic will be same, which is to throw not_implemented_exception, for example:

operator string() const {throw not_implemented_exception();}

custom_transaction : public base_transaction<EncryptionAlgo>

Private Members:

  • from_address (Yours public_key)
  • to_address (Others public_key)
  • transfer_amount
  • timestamp
  • signature (Initially 0, will be updated in sign_transaction)

Public Members:

  • Parametric Constructor with from_addr, to_addr, transfer_amount
custom_transaction(from_adrr, to_addr, amount){
    from_address = from_addr;
    to_address = to_addr;
    transfer_amount = amount;
    timestamp = chrono::steady_clock::now();
    signature = 0;
  • Hash Generator function (generate_hash_input)
# Concatenation of all stringified private variables (except Signature)
# to_string(...) in C++
return (str(from_addr) + str(to_addr) + str(amount) + str(timestamp))
  • Override string Operator (for string typecasting)
operator string() const
  string from_address_str = "\nfrom_address: " + to_string(from_address);
  string to_address_str = "\nto_address: " + to_string(to_address);
  string transfer_amount_str = "\ntransfer_amount: " + to_string(transfer_amount);
  string signature_str = "\nsignature: " + to_string(signature);
  return from_address_str + to_address_str + transfer_amount_str + signature_str;
  • Override << Operator (for cout)
friend ostream &operator<<(ostream &out, custom_transaction const &temp)
  // Using above string operator
  return out << string(temp);
  • Override < Operator (for comparison)
bool operator<(const custom_transaction &other) const
  return generate_hash_input() < other.generate_hash_input();
  • Function to get balance based on the address (get_balance(addr))
float get_balance(addr) const
  if (addr == to_address)
    return transfer_amount;
  if (addr == from_address)
    return -transfer_amount;
  return 0;
  • Function to sign transaction (sign_transaction(key_pair))

Here are some Pointers regarding signing

  • A Transaction is signed by the party making transaction therefore our from_address should match public_key in key_pair. Let us create an Error Regarding that:
    class public_key_mismatch : public invalid_argument
          string addr, std::string pk) : invalid_argument("from_addr: '" + addr + "' do not match public_key: '" + pk + "'"){};
  • A Transaction is can be signed once, Let us create a Exception Regarding that:
    class resign_transaction_exception : public logic_error
      resign_transaction_exception(string transaction) : logic_error("Resigning Transaction!" + transaction){};
  • Signing of Transaction refers Signing the stringified Transaction class i.e. output of generate_hash_input()
    template <typename EncryptionAlgo>
    bool sign_transaction(EncryptionAlgo key_pair)
    if (from_address != key_pair.get_public_key())
      throw public_key_mismatch(to_string(from_address), to_string(key_pair.get_public_key()));
    if (signature != 0) // already signed
      throw resign_transaction_exception(*this);
    signature = key_pair.sign(generate_hash_input());
    return true;
  • Function to validate transaction (is_transaction_valid(verifying_func))
bool is_transaction_valid(bool (*verfication_function)(string, size_t, address)) const
  // reward, since reward is given by admin, there is no key pair
  if (from_address == 0)
    return true;
  return verfication_function(generate_hash_input(), signature, from_address);

block <Transaction, HashFunctionClass>


  • A block typically contains the following:

    • ID
    • Previous Hash
    • timestamp
    • nonce ("number used once") a 32-bit, data computed in proof-of-work
    • A set of Transactions (Merkel Tree)
    • Hash (stringification of all of the above)
  • hash_function is an instance of template class used for all hashing related needs (std::hash used in main.cpp)

  • Proof of Work:

    • Calculating Hash in such a way that it becomes computationally intensive. A way to make it happen is:
# Here `nonce` is found via brute force
# until HASH_PATTERNis matched.
    hash_input = str(...) + str(nonce)
    if re.match(hash_function(hash_input), HASH_PATTERN):
        return nonce
    nonce += 1
  • In BitCoin:

    • hash_function: sha256
    • HASH_PATTERN: Starting with n zeros, higher the n, harder to compute.
  • In namespace::ra :

    • hash_function: Template (std::hash<string> for reference)
    • HASH_PATTERN: hash length must be 15/n, lesser the n, harder to compute.

block_chain <Transaction, HashFunctionClass>

Well as the name states it is a chain of blocks, So Naturally, It will contain the same Template Arguments as Block

Private Members:

  • list<BlockType> chain (A list of blocks)
  • list<Trasaction> pending_transaction (Temperaroy Buffer before mining (create a block and adding it to list))
  • difficulty (to be passed in block class)
  • minning_reward (If exists, will add a new transaction from admin before mining block)
  • verfication_function (to verify block or transaction itself)

Public Members:

  • Iterator Class (To make iteration easy)
  • Private:
    • std::_List_iterator<block_type> block_ptr,
  • Public:
    • Override ==, !=, ++, &++, --, &--, for example:
iterator operator--(int)
    iterator _temp = *this;
    return _temp;
  • Override the following to work with iterator class
const iterator begin() { return chain.begin(); }
const iterator end() { return chain.end(); }
block_type &back() { return chain.back(); }
block_type &front() { return chain.front(); }
int size() { return chain.size(); }
  • block_chain(diffuculty, verfication_function, minning_reward) Constructor:
    • Update all the private variable by this constructor
    • Add A Genesis Block to chain!
  • get_balance():
    • float balance = 0
    • Iterator over the block_chain from begin() to end() using iterator class and add it to balance
    • return balance
  • add_transaction(temp)
    • check temp using is_transaction_valid by passing in verfication_function
    • add to pending_transaction else Throw Error
  • mine_pending_transactions(minning_reward_address)

    • if minning_reward exsits, add a reward transaction to minning_reward_address, else continue
    • create a block with pending_transaction, and push it to chain.
    • clear pending_transaction.
  • is_chain_valid()

    • Iterator over the chain, check the validity of current block using is_block_valid by passing in verfication_function
    • check if previous_hash of current block matches hash of the previous block

All the code can be found at the below link:

Share this